The year is 1943, the year in which Dorothy Maxine Schwab was Born in Stockton, California.
Year 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common
year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.
* January 1 - Thailand Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram decrees January
1 as the official start of the Thai solar calendar new year (thus the previous
year that began April 1 had only nine months).
* January 4 - The short subject Elmer's Pet Rabbit is released, marking the second appearance of Bugs Bunny, and also the first to have his name on a title card.
* January 6
o Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms Speech in the State of the Union Address.
o Keel of USS Missouri (BB-63) is laid at New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn.
* January 8 - Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell the founder of Scouting, dies.
* January 10 - Lend-Lease is introduced into the U.S. Congress.
* January 15 - John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry describe the workings of the Atanasoff–Berry Computer in print.
* January 19 - World War II: British troops attack Italian-held Eritrea.
* January 20 - Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt for his third term.
* January 21 - World War II: Australian and British forces attack Tobruk, Libya.
* January 22 - World War II: British troops capture Tobruk from the Italians.
* January 23 - Aviator Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.
* January 27 - World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - U.S. Ambassador to Japan Joseph C. Grew passes on to Washington a rumor overheard at a diplomatic reception about a planned surprise attack upon Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
* February 3 - World War II: The Nazis forcibly restore Pierre Laval to office
in occupied Vichy, France.
* February 4 - World War II: The United Service Organization (USO) is created to entertain American troops.
* February 7 - World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - General Walter C. Short becomes Commanding General, Hawaiian Command.
* February 9 - Winston Churchill, in a worldwide broadcast, pleads with the U.S. to show its support by sending arms to the British: "Give us the tools, and we will finish the job."
* February 11 - World War II: Lieutenant-General Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli.
* February 14 - World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - Admiral Kichisaburo Nomura begins his duties as Japanese ambassador to the United States.
* February 19 - World War II: The start of the Three Nights' Blitz over Swansea, South Wales. Over these three nights of intensive bombing, which lasted a total of 13 hours and 48 minutes, Swansea town centre was almost completely obliterated by the 896 High Explosive bombs employed by the Luftwaffe. A total of 397 casualties and 230 deaths were reported. The Three nights Blitz ended in the early hours of February 22
* February 23: Glenn T. Seaborg isolates and discovers plutonium.
* March - Captain America Comics #1 issues the first Captain America &
* March 1 - World War II: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact thus joining the Axis powers.
* March 1
o W47NV begins operations in Nashville, Tennessee becoming the first FM radio station.
o Arthur L. Bristol becomes Rear Admiral for the U.S. Navy's Support Force, Atlantic Fleet
* March 4 - World War II: British Commandos carry out a successful raid on the Lofoten Islands off the north coast of Norway.
* March 11
o World War II: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, allowing American-built war supplies to be shipped to the Allies on loan.
o Kinsmen Club of Brantford is chartered.
* March 17
o In Washington, DC, the National Gallery of Art is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
o British Minister of Labour, Ernest Bevin, calls for women to fill vital jobs.
* March 22 - Washington's Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity.
* March 25 - World War II: Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Vienna joins the Axis powers
* March 27 - World War II:
o Anti-Axis coup d'état in Yugoslavia - Prince Paul exiled; 17-year-old King Peter II assumes power.
o Attack on Pearl Harbor - Japanese spy Takeo Yoshikawa arrives in Honolulu, Hawaii and begins to study the United States fleet at Pearl Harbor.
o World War II: Battle of Cape Matapan starts off the Peloponnesus coast in the Mediterranean, British naval forces defeat those of Italy sinking five warships. Battle ends on March 29.
* March 30 - All German, Italian, and Danish ships anchored in United States waters are taken into "protective custody".
* April 6 - World War II: Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
* April 9 - The U.S. acquires full military defense rights in Greenland.
* April 10 - World War II: U.S. destroyer Niblack, while picking up survivors from a sunken Dutch freighter, drops depth charges on a German U-Boat - the first "shot in anger" fired by America against Germany.
* April 12 - World War II: German troops enter Belgrade.
* April 13 - Soviet Union and Japan sign a neutrality pact.
* April 15 - World War II: The U.S. begins shipping Lend-Lease aid to China.
* April 17 - World War II: Yugoslav Royal Army capitulates.
* April 18 - World War II: Prime Minister of Greece Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide as German troops approach Athens.
* April 21 - World War II: Greece capitulates. Commonwealth troops and some elements of the Greek Army withdraw to Crete.
* April 23 - America First Committee holds its first mass rally in New York City with Charles Lindbergh as keynote speaker.
* April 25 - Franklin D. Roosevelt, at his regular press conference, criticizes Charles Lindbergh by comparing him to the Copperheads of the Civil War period. In response, Lindbergh resigns his commission in the U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve on April 28.
* April 27 - World War II: German troops enter Athens.
* May 1
o Breakfast cereal Cheerios is introduced as CheeriOats by General Mills.
o Orson Welles' film Citizen Kane premieres in New York City
o The first Defense Bonds and Defense Savings Stamps go on sale in the United States to help fund the greatly increased production of military equipment.
* May 5 - World War II: Emperor Haile Selassie enters Addis Ababa, which had been liberated from Italian forces; this date has been since commemorated as Liberation Day in Ethiopia.
* May 6 - At California's March Field, Bob Hope performs his first USO Show.
* May 9 - World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the British Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later use to break coded German messages.
* May 10 - World War II:
o The United Kingdom's House of Commons is damaged by the Luftwaffe in an air raid.
o Rudolf Hess parachutes into Scotland claiming to be on a peace mission.
* May 12 - Konrad Zuse presented the Z3, the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computer in Berlin.
* May 15
o First British jet aircraft, the Gloster E.28/39, is flown.
o Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak begins, lasting until July 17.
* May 20 - World War II: The Battle of Crete begins as Germany launches an airborne invasion of Crete.
* May 21 - World War II: 950 miles off the coast of Brazil, the freighter SS Robin Moor becomes the first United States ship sunk by a German U-boat.
* May 24 - World War II: In the North Atlantic, the German battleship Bismarck sinks the HMS Hood killing all but three crewman on what was the pride of the Royal Navy.
* May 26 - World War II: In the North Atlantic, Fairey Swordfish aircraft from the carrier HMS Ark Royal fatally cripple the German battleship Bismarck in torpedo attack.
* May 27 - World War II:
o President Roosevelt proclaims an "unlimited national emergency."
o German battleship Bismarck is sunk in North Atlantic killing 2,300.
* June 4 - The ex-kaiser of Germany, Wilhelm II, dies in exile at Doorn, Netherlands.
* June 5 - Four thousand Chongqing residents are asphyxiated in a bomb shelter during the Bombing of Chongqing.
* June 8 - World War II: British and Free French forces invade Syria.
* June 8 - A Serbian ammunition plant explodes at Smederevo, outskirt of Belgrade, Serbia, killing 1,500.
* June 13 - TASS, the official Soviet news agency, denies reports of tension between Germany and the Soviet Union.
* June 14
o Mass deportations by Soviet Union authorities take place in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
o All German and Italian assets in the United States are frozen.
* June 16 - All German and Italian consulates in the United States are ordered closed and their staffs to leave the country by July 10.
* June 22 - World War II:
o Germany attacks the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa
o Italy and Romania declare war on the Soviet Union.
o Winston Churchill promises all possible British assistance to the Soviet Union in a worldwide broadcast: "Any man or state who fights against Nazidom will have our aid. Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our foe."
o First Sisak Partisan Brigade, first anti-fascist armed unit in occupied Europe founded by partisans near Sisak, Croatia.
* June 23 - World War II: Hungary and Slovakia declare war on the Soviet Union.
* June 25 - World War II: Finland attacks the Soviet Union to seek the opportunity of revenge in the Continuation War.
* June 28 - World War II: Albania declares war on the Soviet Union.
* July - The British army's SAS (Special Air Service) formed.
* July 2 - World War II: Japan calls up one million men for military service.
* July 3 - World War II: Joseph Stalin, in his first address since the German invasion, calls upon the Soviet people to carry out a "scorched earth" policy of resistance to the bitter end.
* July 4 - Mass murder of Polish scientists and writers, committed by German troops in captured Polish city of Lwów.
* July 5
o World War II: German troops reach the Dnieper River.
o War breaks out between Peru and Ecuador, lasts until July 19.
* July 7 - World War II:
o American forces take over the defense of Iceland from the British
o Serbia starts the first popular uprising in Europe against the Axis Powers.
o World War II: German troops take over Estonia from the Soviets.
* July 13 - World War II: Montenegro starts the second popular uprising in Europe against the Axis Powers.
* July 14 - World War II: Vichy France signs armistice terms ending all fighting in Syria and Lebanon.
* July 19 - World War II: A BBC broadcast by "Colonel Britton" calls on the people of Occupied Europe to resist the Nazis under the slogan "V for Victory".
* July 26 - World War II:
o In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.
o General Douglas MacArthur is named commander of all U.S. forces in the Philippines; the Philippines Army ordered nationalized by President Roosevelt.
* July 30 - World War II: U.S. gunboat Tutuila attacked by Japanese aircraft while anchored in the Yangtze River at Chungking. Japan apologizes for the incident the following day.
* July 31 - World War II: Holocaust: Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Nazi official Hermann Göring, orders SS general Reinhard Heydrich to "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired final solution of the Jewish question."
* August - Formation of the Political Warfare Executive in the United Kingdom
* August 1 - The first Jeep is produced
* August 6 - Six-year-old Elaine Esposito goes to an appendix operation in Florida and lapses into a coma. She dies 1978, still in coma.
* August 9 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet at Argentia, Dominion of Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter is created as a result.
* August 12 - By one vote (203-202), the U.S. House of Representatives passes legislation extending the draft period for selectees and the National Guard from one year to 30 months.
* August 16 - HMS Mercury, Royal Navy Signals School and Combined Signals School Opens at Leydene, near Petersfield, Hampshire, England.
* August 18 - Adolf Hitler orders a temporary halt to Nazi Germany's systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and handicapped due to protests. However, graduates of the T-4 Euthanasia Program were then transferred to concentration camps, where they continued in their trade.
* August 22 - World War II: France - German Occupation Authority announces that anyone found either working for or aiding the Free French will be sentenced to death.
* August 24 - World War II: A Luftwaffe bomb hits an Estonian steamer with 3500 Soviet-mobilized Estonian men on board, killing 598 of them.
* August 25 - World War II: Operation Countenance begins with United Kingdom and Soviet forces invading Iran.
* August 27 - World War II: France - Pierre Laval is shot in an assassination attempt at Versailles.
* August 28 - World War II: Soviets announce the destruction of massive Dnieper River dam at Zaporozhye to prevent its capture by the Germans.
* August 31 - The Great Gildersleeve debuts on NBC Radio.
* September 4 - World War II: The USS Greer becomes the first United States
ship fired upon by a German submarine in the war, even though the United States
is a neutral power. Tension heightens between the two nations as a result.
* September 6 - Holocaust: The requirement to wear the Star of David with the word "Jew" inscribed, is extended to all Jews over the age of 6 in German-occupied areas.
* September 8 - World War II: Siege of Leningrad begins - German forces begin a siege against the Soviet Union's second-largest city, Leningrad. Stalin orders the Volga Deutsche deported to Siberia.
* September 11 - World War II:
o Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Navy to shoot on sight if any ship or convoy is threatened.
o Charles Lindbergh, at an America First Committee rally in Des Moines, Iowa, accuses "the British, the Jewish, and the Roosevelt administration" of leading the United States toward war. Widespread condemnation of Lindbergh follows.
* September 12 - World War II: First snowfall reported on Russian front.
* September 15 - Self-government of Estonia, headed by Hjalmar Mäe, is appointed by German military administration.
* September 16 - Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran is forced to resign in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran under pressure from the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union.
* September 27 - The first Liberty Ship, the SS Patrick Henry, is launched at Baltimore, Maryland.
* October 2 - World War II: Operation Typhoon begins as Germany begins an
all-out offensive against Moscow.
* October 7 - John Curtin becomes the 14th Prime Minister of Australia
* October 8 - World War II: In their invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany reaches the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol.
* October 16 - World War II: The Soviet Union government moves to Kuibyshev, but Stalin remains in Moscow.
* October 17 - World War II: The destroyer USS Kearny is torpedoed and damaged near Iceland, killing eleven sailors - the first American military casualties of the war.
* October 18 - General Hideki Tojo becomes the 40th Prime Minister of Japan.
* October 21 - World War II: The Germans rampage in Yugoslavia, killing thousands of civilians
* October 23 - Walt Disney's feature-length cartoon Dumbo is released.
* October 24 - Franz von Werra disappears during a flight over North Sea
* October 30 - World War II: Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves US$1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Soviet Union.
* October 31
o After 14 years of work, drilling is completed on Mount Rushmore.
o World War II: The destroyer USS Reuben James is torpedoed by a German U-boat near Iceland, killing more than 100 United States Navy sailors.
* November 6 - World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet
Union for only the second time during his three-decade rule (the first time
was earlier that year on July 2). He states that even though 350,000 troops
were killed in German attacks so far, that the Germans have lost 4.5 million
soldiers (a gross exaggeration) and that Soviet victory was near.
* November 7 - World War II: The Soviet hospital Ship Armenia sunk by German planes while evacuating refugees, wounded military and staff of several Crimean hospitals. It is estimated that over 5,000 people died in the sinking.
* November 10 - In a speech at the Mansion House in London, Winston Churchill promises, "...should the United States become involved in war with Japan, the British declaration will follow within the hour."
* November 12 - World War II: As Battle of Moscow begins, temperatures around Moscow drop to -12 °C and the Soviet Union launches ski troops for the first time against the freezing German forces near the city.
* November 13 - World War II: The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is hit by German U-boat U-81
* November 14 - World War II:
o HMS Ark Royal capsizes and sinks, having been torpedoed by U-81.
o Attack on Pearl Harbor - Japanese diplomat Saburo Kurusu arrives in the United States to assist Ambassador Kichisaburo Nomura in peace negotiations.
* November 17 - World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables to Washington a warning that Japan may strike suddenly and unexpectedly at any time.
* November 19 - World War II: The Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney sinks off the coast of Western Australia, killing 645 sailors.
* November 21 - The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it would later become the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
* November 24 - World War II: The United States grants Lend-Lease to the Free French.
* November 25 - Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi, Pakistani author, Spiritual Leader and founder of International Spiritual Movement Anjuman Serfaroshan-e-Islam
* November 26
o US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs a bill establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day in the United States (this partly reversed a 1939 action by Roosevelt that changed the celebration of Thanksgiving to the third Thursday of November).
o The Hull note ultimatum is delivered to Japan by the United States.
o World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - A fleet of six aircraft carriers commanded by Japanese Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo leaves Hitokapu Bay for Pearl Harbor under strict radio silence.
* November 27
o A group of young men stop traffic on highway US 99 south of Yreka, California, handing out fliers proclaiming the establishment of the State of Jefferson.
o World War II: Germans reach their closest approach to Moscow. They are subsequently frozen by cold weather and attacks by the Soviets.
o World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - All U.S. military forces in Asia and the Pacific are placed on war alert.
The USS Arizona ablaze after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
The USS Arizona ablaze after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
* December 1 - World War II:
o Fiorello La Guardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signed Administrative Order 9 creating the Civil Air Patrol under the authority of the United States Army Air Force.
o State of emergency declared in Malaya and the Straits Settlements.
* December 2 - World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - The code message "Climb Mount Niitaka" is transmitted to the Japanese task force, indicating that negotiations have broken down and that the attack is to be carried out according to plan.
* December 4 - State of Jefferson declared in Yreka, California, with judge John Childs as a governor
* December 6 - World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor - Franklin D. Roosevelt makes a personal peace appeal to Emperor Hirohito of Japan.
* December 7, (December 8,Japan standard time) - Japanese Navy launches a surprise attack on the United States fleet at Pearl Harbor, thus drawing the United States into World War II.
* December 8 - World War II:
o The United States officially declares war on Japan.
o China officially declares war on Japan
o The Netherlands declares war on Japan
o Japan launches invasions in Hong Kong, Malaya, Manila, and Singapore.
o Japan launches invasions in the Philippines.
* December 10 - World War II: The British battleships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse are sunk by Japanese aircraft in the South China Sea north of Singapore.
* December 11 - World War II:
o Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. The U.S. responds in kind.
o American forces repel a Japanese landing attempt at Wake Island.
* December 12 - World War II
o Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States.
o India declares war on Japan.
o United States seizes French ship Normandie.
* December 13 - Sweden's low temperature record of -53°C was set in a village within Vilhelmina Municipality.
* December 19 - World War II: Hitler becomes Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the German Army
* December 23 - World War II: A second Japanese landing attempt on Wake Island is successful, and the American garrison surrenders after a full night and morning of fighting.
* December 25 - World War II: British and Canadians are defeated by the Japanese at Hong Kong.
* December 26 - World War II: Winston Churchill becomes the first British Prime Minister to address a Joint session of the U.S. Congress
* December 27 - World War II: British Commandos raid the Norwegian port of Vaagso, causing Hitler to reinforce the garrison and defenses, drawing vital troops away from other areas.
* December 28 - World War II: Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of Heydrich in Prague.
Also in 1941:
* The Valley of Geysers is discovered in Russia.
* Results of the Ives–Stilwell experiment are published, showing that ions radiate at frequencies affected by their motion.
* In Sweden, Victor Hasselblad forms the Hasselblad camera company.
* Indochina Communist party, led by Ho Chi Minh, combines with Nationalist party to form the Vietminh.
* Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).
* World War II (1939-1945).